Water is one of the basic necessities for sustaining life and maintaining ecological balance. Though water is the simplest compound by its structure, it is the major component of all living things. Life on earth without water cannot be imagined and history is replete with wars fought between civilizations over water.
Humans use water for various purposes. Besides drinking, bathing, washing and cooking, water is used for irrigation. It is helpful in generating electricity (hydropower). Large amount of water is required in industries like drugs, paper, fertilisers, petroleum refining and for construction of buildings and many more. Three-fourths of the Earth’s surface (71%) is covered with water, but only a small proportion (2.1%) of fresh water can be put to use. But due to overpopulation, increasing demands for food and cash crops, urbanisation and rising standard of living, the excessive use of freshwater has led to the drying up of water sources and water pollution. The lack of safe drinking water and sanitation varies from country to country. Every country is giving importance to manage its water resources in order to promote its economic growth, people’s growth and biological diversity. Conservation of water teaches us that in order to protect the environment, save life and save our world, proper water management is an urgent need of the hour to avoid severe water crisis. Water usage must be optimised and adequate measures like rain water harvesting must be implemented. The contamination of water should be avoided by preventing the dumping of medicines and industrial wastes into the water resources by adopting proper waste management system. We should also raise awareness and make initiatives so that we can preserve water for the future generations and also for other species that are surviving on earth.